Gravity wave emission by geostrophically balanced flow is diagnosed in numerical simulations of lateral and vertical shear instabilities. The diagnostic method in use allows for a separation of balanced flow and residual wave signal up to fourth order in the Rossby number Ro. While evidence is found for a small but finite gravity wave emission from balanced flow in a single layer model with large lateral shear and large Ro, a vertically resolved model with moderate velocity amplitudes appropriate to the interior ocean hardly shows any wave emission. Only when static instabilities generated by the shear instability of the balanced flow are allowed, a gravity wave signal similar to the ones reported in earlier studies can be detected in the vertically resolved case. This result suggests a relatively small role of spontaneous wave emission in the classical sense of Lighthill radiation, and emphasizes the role of convective or symmetric instabilities during frontogenesis for the generation of internal gravity waves in the ocean and atmosphere.
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